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De aanduiding TsjechiŽ stamt uit de 18e eeuw, maar was lange tijd veel ongebruikelijker dan de namen van het afzonderlijke Bohemen en MoraviŽ. Het Tsjechische woord voor Bohemen is ?echy, het bijvoeglijk naamwoord is ?eskż. Tegenwoordig is de aanduiding Tsjechische Republiek nog steeds frequent, maar al in 1993 besloot het Tsjechische Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken de korte naam "TsjechiŽ" (?esko, Czechia) te gebruiken, behalve in officiŽle documenten en in de volledige namen van overheidsinstellingen. In historische documenten is soms ook sprake van ?eskť zem? (Tsjechische Landen). [bewerk] Geschiedenis Zie Geschiedenis van TsjechiŽ voor het hoofdartikel over dit onderwerp. In de Middeleeuwen maakten de twee belangrijkste delen van TsjechiŽ, Bohemen en MoraviŽ, deel uit van het Heilige Roomse Rijk der Duitse Natie. Het koninkrijk Bohemen was een belangrijke macht, maar religieuze conflicten zoals de Hussietenoorlogen in de 15e en de Dertigjarige oorlog in de 17e eeuw scheurden het rijk uiteen. Later kwam het gebied in de macht van de Habsburgers en maakte deel uit van het grote Oostenrijk-Hongarije. Nadat de Eerste Wereldoorlog een eind had gemaakt aan het bestaan van Oostenrijk-Hongarije, sloten de Tsjechen en het naastgelegen Slowakije zich aaneen, en richtten in 1918 de onafhankelijke republiek Tsjechoslowakije op. In de nieuwe republiek woonde een groot aantal Duitsers. Dit was voor Nazi-Duitsland aanleiding om dit gebied te annexeren na de Conferentie van MŁnchen in 1938. Ook Slowakije besloot zich af te scheiden. Het overgebleven gebied werd in 1939 door Duitsland bezet (Protectoraat Bohemen-MoraviŽ). Na de Tweede Wereldoorlog maakten TsjechiŽ en Slowakije als Tsjechoslowakije deel uit van het oostblok. Tsjechoslowakije bleef tot de Praagse Coup een democratisch regime. Dit regime was weliswaar zeer anti-Westers en pro-Sovjet Unie doordat ze voor de tweede wereldoorlog door het westen in de Conferentie van MŁnchen in de steek zijn gelaten. Op 1 januari 1993 maakte TsjechiŽ zich los van Tsjechoslowakije, en ging het zich steeds meer op het westen richten. Op 1 mei 2004 trad het land met nog negen andere staten toe tot de Europese Unie. [bewerk] Demografie [bewerk] Taal officiŽle taal: Tsjechisch. [bewerk] Religie godsdienst: de rooms-katholieke godsdienst is de grootste, gevolgd door diverse protestantse kerken w.o. de Hussietische. De meerderheid der Tsjechen is echter atheÔstisch. [bewerk] Bestuurlijke indeling Zie Regio's van TsjechiŽ voor het hoofdartikel over dit onderwerp. TsjechiŽ bestaat uit de historische regio's Bohemen en MoraviŽ en een klein deel van SileziŽ (Tsjechisch SileziŽ). Het land is onderverdeeld in 14 regio's. [bewerk] Geografie TsjechiŽ [bewerk] Kerngegevens oppervlakte: 78.866 km≤ omtrek landgrenzen: 2303 km kustlijn: geen buurlanden: Polen, Duitsland, Oostenrijk en Slowakije inwonertal: 10,268 miljoen (2006) bevolkingsdichtheid: 130 inwoners/km2 (2000) verstedelijking: Stad 66 procent (1998 schatting) Platteland 34 procent (1998 schatting) grootste meer: ?ernť jezero, 18,4 ha hoogste punt: Sn??ka 1602 m. laagste punt: Elbe 115m officiŽle naam: Tsjechische Republiek (?eskŠ Republika) munteenheid: Tsjechische kroon (?eskŠ koruna, K?) = 100 heller (halť?) nationale feestdag: 28 oktober volkslied: Kde domov m?j (Waar is mijn vaderland) tijdzone: GMT +1 landcode (telefoon): +420 landcode (post, verkeer): CZ topleveldomein: .cz [bewerk] Rivieren Rivieren in TsjechiŽ zijn: Moldau (Vltava) Elbe (Labe) March (Morava) Oder (Odra) [bewerk] Steden Hoofdstad van TsjechiŽ is Praag (Praha). Andere belangrijke steden: Brno Olomouc Ostrava Pilsen (Plze?) Zie ook: Lijst van grote Tsjechische steden [bewerk] Bezienswaardigheden Zie ook: Monumenten op de Werelderfgoedlijst [bewerk] Cultuur [bewerk] Muziek In TsjechiŽ is de opera en de symfonische muziek groot, vaak werd de klassieke muziek ook erg beÔnvloed door de Boheemse en Moravische volksmuziek. Zeer bekend uit de traditionele Boheemse muziek is de polka. Bekende Tsjechische componisten zijn Leo? JanŠ?ek, AntonŪn Dvo?Šk en Bed?ich Smetana. [bewerk] Literatuur Zie ook: Tsjechische literatuur [bewerk] Politiek Het parlement bestaat uit twee kamers: Huis van Afgevaardigden PoslaneckŠ sn?movna (200 zetels, termijn: 4 jaar) *Senaat SenŠt (81 zetels, termijn: zes jaar, elke twee jaar wordt 1/3 'ververst'). staatsvorm: parlementaire republiek president: VŠclav Klaus, sinds 2003, termijn: 5 jaar regeringsleider: Mirek TopolŠnek [bewerk] Natuur Nationaal parken van TsjechiŽ: Nationaal park Krkono?e Nationaal park ?umava [bewerk] Klimaat Het klimaat van TsjechiŽ behoort tot het Midden-Europese type waarin het klimaat van west naar oost gaande een steeds sterker continentaal karakter krijgt. De gemiddelde temperatuur overdag bedraagt in Praag in de maand januari 9,5įC en in de maanden juni, juli en augustus 30,9, 32,7 en 31,8įC. Streken in de dalen van Bohemen hebben een laag neerslagcijfer. Weer andere gebieden in Bohemen hebben een onstabieler klimaat, wat lijkt op het Nederlandse klimaat. Het waait alleen wat minder hard en er valt veel meer sneeuw. De gemiddelde temperatuur in geheel TsjechiŽ is in juli, 18 tot 21įC. In januari een gemiddelde van -5įC tot -11įC. In de drie zomermaanden valt de meeste neerslag. De droogste periode is van december tot en met februari met een gemiddelde neerslag van 190-200 mm. De droogste gebieden zijn Midden-Bohemen en Zuid-MoraviŽ. De gemiddelde neerslag is in de dalen 450 tot 650 mm per jaar en in de bergen 1000 tot 2000 mm. In MoraviŽ hebben de laagvlaktes en dalen in het midden en zuiden een droger klimaat en is het gemiddeld warmer dan in Bohemen. De bergstreken in MoraviŽ kennen een vrij instabiel, vochtig weertype met neerslaghoeveelheden tot 1550 mm per jaar. [bewerk] Verkeer en vervoer Het Tsjechische wegennet is circa 55.432 km, waarvan maar 499 km autosnelweg is. Zie ook: Lijst van Tsjechische autosnelwegen Het spoorwegennet is circa 9462 km lang. [bewerk] Zie ook TsjechiŽ van A tot Z [bewerk] Externe links Meer afbeeldingen die bij dit onderwerp horen kunt u vinden in de categorie Czech Republic van Wikimedia Commons.Officieel portaal van de Tsjechische Republiek (Engels) OfficiŽle website van de Tsjechische Overheid (Engels) ...meer externe links in de Open Directory Europese Unie (EU) BelgiŽ | Cyprus | Denemarken | Duitsland | Estland | Finland | Frankrijk | Griekenland | Hongarije | Ierland | ItaliŽ | Letland | Litouwen | Luxemburg | Malta | Nederland | Oostenrijk | Polen | Portugal | SloveniŽ | Slowakije | Spanje | TsjechiŽ | Verenigd Koninkrijk | Zweden Toetredende landen (2007): Bulgarije | RoemeniŽ ? Kandidaatlidstaten: KroatiŽ | MacedoniŽ | Turkije Landen van de wereld | Europa | OVSE | Raad van Europa CategorieŽn: TsjechiŽ | Land | NAVO-lid | EU-lid Aspecten/actiesartikel overleg bewerk Geschiedenis Persoonlijke instellingenAanmelden en inschrijven Navigatie Hoofdpagina Artikelindex CategorieŽn Recente wijzigingen Willekeurige pagina Informatie Gebruikersportaal In het nieuws Help en contact Financieel bijdragen Zoeken hulpmiddelen Links naar deze pagina Verwante wijzigingen Upload bestand Speciale pagina's Printervriendelijke versie Permalink Citeer dit artikel in andere talen Afrikaans ???? Aragonťs Anglo Saxon ??????? ??????? Asturianu Az?rbaycan ?????????? ????????? ????? Brezhoneg Bosanski Catalŗ ?esky KaszŽbsczi ?????????? Cymraeg Dansk Deutsch ???????? English Esperanto EspaŮol Eesti Euskara ????? Suomi Vűro FranÁais Furlan Frysk Gaeilge Galego Gaelg ????? Hrvatski Hornjoserbsce Magyar ??????? Interlingua Bahasa Indonesia Ido Õslenska Italiano ??? ??????? ??? 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The Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1993 suggested that the name Czechia to be an official alternative in all situations other than formal official documents and the full names of government institutions, but this has not caught on in English usage. The official website of the Czech Republic (www.czech.cz) run by the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs does not use the name Czechia as of 2006; its Czech equivalent ?esko is disputed by many Czechs, but has been contained in a longer version of the Dictionary of the Czech language of the Czech Academy of Sciences since the 1970s. [edit] History Main article: History of the Czech lands Prague CastleArchaeologists have found evidence of prehistoric human settlement in the area dating back to the Neolithic era. In the classical era, from the 3rd century BC Celtic migrations, the Boii (see Bohemia) and later in the 1st century Germanic tribes of Marcomanni and Quadi settled there. During the Migration Period of ca. the 5th century, many Germanic tribes moved westward and southward out of Central Europe. In an equally significant migration, Slavic people from the Black Sea and Carpathian regions settled in the area (a movement that was also stimulated by the onslaught of peoples from Siberia and Eastern Europe: Huns, Avars, Bulgars and Magyars). Following in the Germans' wake, they moved southward into Bohemia, Moravia, and some of present day Austria. During the 7th century the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting their Avar rulers, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe. The Moravian principality arose in the 8th century (see under Great Moravia). The Bohemian or Czech state emerged in the late 9th century when it was unified by the P?emyslids. The kingdom of Bohemia was a significant local power during the Middle Ages. It was part of the Holy Roman Empire during the entire existence of this confederation. Religious conflicts such as the 15th century Hussite Wars and the 17th century Thirty Years' War had a devastating effect on the local population. From the sixteenth century, Bohemia came increasingly under Habsburg control,as the Habsburgs became first the elected and then hereditary rulers of Bohemia. After the fall of the Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia became part of Austria-Hungary. Following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire after World War I, the independent republic of Czechoslovakia was created in 1918. This new country incorporated regions with majority German, Hungarian, Polish and Ruthenian speaking populations. Although Czechoslovakia was a centralist state, it provided what was at the time rather extensive rights to its minorities. However, it did not grant its minorities any territorial political autonomy, which resulted in discontent and strong support among some of the minorities to break away from Czechoslovakia. Adolf Hitler used the opportunity and, supported by Konrad Henlein's Sudeten German Party, gained the majority German speaking Sudetenland through the Munich Agreement. Poland occupied areas with Polish minority around ?eskż T??Ūn, while Slovakia gained greater autonomy, with the state being renamed to "Czecho-Slovakia". Eventually Slovakia broke away further in March 1939, allied to Hitlerīs coalition and the remaining Czech territory was occupied by Hitler who installed the so-called Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, which was proclaimed part of the Reich and where the Protectorate President and Prime Minister were subordinate to the Nazi Reichsprotektor ('imperial protector'). Approximately 390,000 citizens, including 83,000 Jews, were killed, executed or killed in war, and hundreds of thousand of others were sent to prisons and concentration camps or forced labour. The Czechoslovak government-in-exile and its army fighting against the Germans were acknowledged by Allies (Czech troops in Great Britain, North Africa, Middle East and Soviet Union). VŠclav Havel, the first President of the Czech Republic VŠclav Klaus, last President of the Czech RepublicIn 1945-6 almost the entire German minority of pre-War Czechoslovakia, about 3 million people, were expelled to Germany and Austria. During this time, hundreds of thousand of Germans were held in prisons, detention camps, and used in forced labour. In the summer of 1945, there were several massacres with at least 20,000 deaths. Only 250,000 Germans who had been active in the resistance against the Nazis or were necessary for the economy were allowed to stay, though many of them emigrated later. Czechoslovakia uneasily tried to play "bridge" between the West and East; however the strengthening Communist Party of Czechoslovakia took over in February 1948, bringing the country within the Soviet sphere of influence. In August 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize party rule and create "socialism with a human face" during the Prague Spring. In November 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its political independence through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution". On January 1, 1993, the country peacefully split in two, creating the independent Czech and Slovak republics. The Czech Republic joined NATO on March 12, 1999 and the European Union on May 1, 2004. From 1991 the Czech Republic, then Czechoslovakia, has been a member of the Visegrad Group. [edit] Geography Map of the Czech RepublicMain article: Geography of the Czech Republic The Czech landscape is quite varied; Bohemia to the west consists of a basin, drained by the Labe (German: Elbe) and Vltava rivers, surrounded by mostly low mountains such as the Sudetes with its part Krkono?e, where one also finds the highest point in the country, the Sn??ka at 1,602 metres (5,256 ft). Moravia, the eastern part, is also quite hilly and is drained predominantly by the Morava river, but also contains the source of the Odra (German: Oder) river. Water from the landlocked Czech Republic flows to three different seas: the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Black Sea. [edit] Demographics Main article: Demographics of the Czech Republic [edit] Population Population of the Czech lands (CZSO, Prague) Year Total Change Year Total Change 1857 7,016,531 - 1930 10,674,386 6.6% 1869 7,617,230 8.6% 1950 8,896,133 -16.7% 1880 8,222,013 7.9% 1961 9,571,531 7.6% 1890 8,665,421 5.4% 1970 9,807,697 2.5% 1900 9,372,214 8.2% 1980 10,291,927 4.9% 1910 10,078,637 7.5% 1991 10,302,215 0.1% 1921 10,009,587 -0.7% 2001 10,230,060 -0.7% The majority of the inhabitants of the Czech Republic are Czechs (94.2%, this is include Moravians - 3.7% and Silesians - 0.1%; note that most Moravians and Silesians would denote themselves simply as Czechs in the census, regardless of their origins and dialects they speak) and speak Czech, a member of the Slavic languages. Among minorities are Slovaks (1.9%), Germans (0.4%), Poles (0.5%), Roma people, and several others. [edit] Religion According to the 2001 census, 59% of the country is atheist, non-believer or no-organized believer, 26.8% Catholic and ca 2.5% Protestant [1]. According to the 2005 Eurobarometer poll, 30% of Czech respondents don't believe in gods, spirits, or life forces, 50% believe in some sort of spirit or life force, and 19% believe in a god[2]. [edit] Politics Czech guards outside of Prague Castle.Main articles on politics and government of the Czech Republic can be found at the Politics and government of the Czech Republic series. [edit] Political system Politics of the Czech Republic takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Chamber of Deputies (PoslaneckŠ sn?movna) and the Senate. [edit] Military Main article: Military of the Czech Republic The Czech Armed Forces (Czech: ArmŠda ?eskť republiky) consists of Land and Air Forces and of specialized support units. The country has been a member of NATO since March 12, 1999. Military spending is around 1.8% of GDP (2006) [edit] Administrative divisions Main article: Regions of the Czech Republic The Czech Republic is divided into 13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and the capital city (hlavnŪ m?sto) Prague (Praha). It is further subdivided into 77 districts (okresy, sing. okres). (Lic. plate) Region Capital Population (2004 estimate) A Prague (Praha) ? 1 170 571 S Central Bohemian Region (St?edo?eskż kraj) its offices are located in Prague (Praha) 1 144 071 C South Bohemian Region (Jiho?eskż kraj) ?eskť Bud?jovice 625 712 P Plze? Region (Plze?skż kraj) Plze? 549 618 K Karlovy Vary Region (Karlovarskż kraj) Karlovy Vary 304 588 U ŕstŪ nad Labem Region (ŕsteckż kraj) ŕstŪ nad Labem 822 133 L Liberec Region (Libereckż kraj) Liberec 427 563 H Hradec KrŠlovť Region (KrŠlovťhradeckż kraj) Hradec KrŠlovť 547 296 E Pardubice Region (Pardubickż kraj) Pardubice 505 285 M Olomouc Region (Olomouckż kraj) Olomouc 635 126 T Moravian-Silesian Region (Moravskoslezskż kraj) Ostrava 1 257 554 B South Moravian Region (Jihomoravskż kraj) Brno 1 123 201 Z ZlŪn Region (ZlŪnskż kraj) ZlŪn 590 706 J Vyso?ina Region (Vyso?ina) Jihlava 517 153 [edit] Economy Main article: Economy of the Czech Republic [edit] General situation One of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states, the Czech Republic has been recovering from recession since mid-1999. Growth in 2000-2001 was led by exports to the European Union, especially Germany, and foreign investment, while domestic demand is reviving. The rate of corruption remains one of the highest among OECD countries. Uncomfortably high fiscal and current account deficits could be future problems. Moves to complete banking, telecommunications, and energy privatisation will add to foreign investment, while intensified restructuring among large enterprises and banks and improvements in the financial sector should strengthen output growth. The Czech government has expressed a desire to adopt the euro currency in 2010, but its introduction is only in the early planning stages and there are growing doubts whether budget deficit will not force postponement. [edit] Tourism Main article: Tourism in the Czech Republic Prague - Charles Bridge at nightThe Czech economy gets a substantial income from tourism: in 2001, the total earnings from tourism reached 118.13 billion CZK, making up 5.5 % of GNP and 9.3 % of overall export earnings. The industry employs more than 110,000 persons - over 1% of the population. [3] There are several centres of tourist activity: The historic city of Prague is the primary tourist attraction, and the city is also the most common point of entry for tourists visiting other parts of the country [4]. Most other cities in the country attract significant numbers of tourists, but the spa towns such as Karlovy Vary and MariŠnskť LŠzn? are particularly popular holiday destinations. Other popular tourist sites are the many castles and chateaux, such as those at Karl?tejn, Konopi?t? and ?eskż Krumlov. Away from the towns, areas as ?eskż RŠj, ?umava and the Krkono?e mountains attract visitors seeking outdoor pursuits. [edit] Culture Cinema of the Czech Republic List of famous Czechs Czech literature Music of the Czech Republic National Theatre (Prague) List of Czech language television channels Czech cuisine The country is also famous for its love of puppetry and marionettes. The Pilsner style beer originated in the Czech areas. A smooth crisp beer that major American beers such as Budweiser are based on. [edit] International rankings Human Development Index 2006: Rank 30st out of 177 countries Index of Economic Freedom 2006: Rank 21st out of 57 countries Reporters Without Borders world-wide press freedom index 2006: Rank 5th out of 168 countries Global Competitiveness Report 2006: Rank 29th out of 125 countries [edit] Miscellaneous topics Find more information on Czech Republic by searching Wikipedia's sister projects: Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary Textbooks from Wikibooks Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Images and media from Commons News stories from Wikinews Learning resources from Wikiversity Communications in the Czech Republic Foreign relations of the Czech Republic JunŠk List of cities in the Czech Republic List of postal codes in the Czech Republic List of Czech Republic-related topics Public holidays in the Czech Republic Transportation in the Czech Republic Spa towns in the Czech Republic [edit] Reference Much of the material in these articles comes from the CIA World Factbook 2000 and the 2003 U.S. Department of State website. [edit] External links [edit] Government (English) Czech Republic - Official Website (English) Czech Press Agency news (English) Government website Portal of the Public Administration of Czech Republic (English) Senate website [edit] News (English) Expats.cz - Expatriate News and community server (English) Prague Daily Monitor - Czech news (English) Prague Post - English-language newsweekly (English) Presidential website, click for a pop-up overview of English-language content (English) Radio Prague - website of the English service of Czech Radio [edit] Wikitravel Czech Republic at Wikitravel - share your tourist experience.

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